families 1. In taxonomy, term applied to subcategories within orders. 2. Term applied to a group of similar things, such as languages, chromosomes, etc. PICTURE
fats 1. Triglycerides that are solid at room temperature. 2. A legendary pool player from Minnesota?
fauna Term referring collectively to all animals in an area. The zoological counterpart of flora.
feces Semisolid material containing undigested foods, bacteria, bilirubin, and water that is produced in the large intestine and eliminated from the body. Frequently noted as "hitting the fan".
femur The upper leg bone.
fermentation The synthesis of ATP in the absence of oxygen through glycolysis. PICTURE 1 | PICTURE 2
fertilization The fusion of two gametes (sperm and ovum) to produce a zygote that develops into a new individual with a genetic heritage derived from both parents. Strictly speaking, fertilization can be divided into the fusion of the cells (plasmogamy) and the fusion of nuclei (karyogamy).
fibroblast A term applied to a cell of connective tissue that is separated from similar cells by some degree of matrix material; fibroblasts secrete elastin and collagen protein fibers. PICTURE
fibrous root A root system found in monocots in which branches develop from the adventitious roots, forming a system in which all roots are about the same size and length.
filaments Slender, thread-like stalks that make up the stamens of a þower; topped by the anthers. PICTURE
filter feeders Organisms such as sponges that feed by removing food from water that Þlters through their body.
filtration The removal of water and solutes from the blood; occurs in the glomerulus of the nephron.
first law of thermodynamics (conservation) Energy is neither created nor destroyed, it changes from one form to another.
fitness A measure of an individual's ability to survive and reproduce; the chance that an individual will leave more offspring in the next generation than other individuals.
flagella long, whip-like locomotion organelles found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; sing.: flagellum. Eukaryotic flagella have an internal arrangement of microtubules in a 9 + 2 array. PICTURE
flame cell A specialized cell at the blind end of a nephridium that Þlters body þuids.
flora Term collectively applied to all of the plants in an area. The botanical counterpart of fauna.
flowers The reproductive structures in angiosperm sporophytes where gametophytes are generated. PICTURE
fluid feeders Animals such as aphids, ticks, and mosquitoes that pierce the body of a host plant or animal and obtain food from ingesting its þuids.
fluid-mosaic Widely accepted model of the plasma membrane in which proteins (the mosaic) are embedded in lipids (the þuid). PICTURE
follicles (ovary) Structures in the ovary consisting of a developing egg surrounded by a layer of follicle cells. PICTURE
follicles (thyroid) Spherical structures that make up the thyroid gland; contain a gel-like colloid surrounded by a single layer of cells, which secrete thyroglobulin into the colloid.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that promotes gamete formation in both males and females.
fontanels Membranous areas in the human cranial bones that do not form bony structures until the child is 14 to 18 months old; know as "soft spots."
food chain The simplest representation of energy þow in a community. At the base is energy stored in plants, which are eaten by small organisms, which in turn are eaten by progressively larger organisms; the food chain is an oversimpliÞcation in that most animals do not eat only one type of organism.
food pyramid A way of depicting energy þow in an ecosystem; shows producers (mostly plants or other phototrophs) on the Þrst level and consumers on the higher levels.
food web A complex network of feeding interrelations among species in a natural ecosystem; more accurate and more complex depiction of energy þow than a food chain.
foraminifera Single-celled protists that secrete a shell or test. Accumulations of the shells of dead foraminifera and other microscopic sea creatures form chalk deposits. PICTURE 1 | PICTURE 2
forebrain The part of the brain that consists of the diencephalon and cerebrum.
fossil 1. The remains or traces of prehistoric life preserved in rocks of the Earth's crust. 2. Any evidence of past life.
fossil fuels Fuels that are formed in the Earth from plant or animal remains; e.g., coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
fossil record 1. The observed remains of once-living organisms taken as a whole. 2. the album Meet the Beatles.
founder effect The difference in gene pools between an original population and a new population founded by one or a few individuals randomly separated from the original population, as when an island population is founded by one or a few individuals; often accentuates genetic drift.
fovea The area of the eye in which the cones are concentrated.
freshwater biome The aquatic biome consisting of water containing fewer salts than the waters in the marine biome; divided into two zones: running waters (rivers, streams) and standing waters (lakes, ponds).
frontal lobe The lobe of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for motor activity, speech, and thought processes. PICTURE
fruit A ripened ovary wall produced from a flower. PICTURE
fucoxanthin Brown accessory pigment found in and characteristic of the brown algae.
Fungi Nonmobile, heterotrophic, mostly multicellular eukaryotes, including yeasts and mushrooms. PICTURE
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